Rosiglitazone br For the data describing
For the data describing the included informants, the median number and range were calculated for all quantitative variables (age and time since diagnosis), and for nominal variables (sex, cancer diagnosis, treatment, PS, CCI score, working status, marital status and level of leisure time PA) the number and percentage distribution were calcu-lated.
A total of 25 eligible patients were invited to participate in the study. Two patients declined; one due to lack of interest, and one be-cause he Rosiglitazone felt too tired to participate due to severe anemia. Thus, 23 patients (referred to as informants) were interviewed. Most interviews were conducted face-to-face at the hospital (N = 18) or at the in-formant's home (N = 1), while other interviews were conducted by telephone (N = 4). Approximately half of the informants (N = 10) preferred having a relative present during the interview. Characteristics of the included informants are shown in Table 2. Informants were men (N = 12) and women (N = 11) aged 65–85 years (median 72 years) with advanced NSCLC (N = 11), pancreatic cancer (N = 7) and biliary tract cancer (N = 5). The median time since diagnosis was 7 months (range 1–18). Most informants received chemotherapy (N = 16), while 7 informants with NSCLC received immunotherapy. CCI ranged be-tween 0 and 4, and most had a PS of 0–1 (N = 22). The most common comorbidities were hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, chronic European Journal of Oncology Nursing 41 (2019) 16–23
Characteristics of the informants.
Chemotherapy 16 (70%) Immunotherapy 7 (30%) Performance status (ECOG)
Married/living with partner 14 (61%) Single/widow 9 (39%) Working status
Unless otherwise stated, data are shown as number (N) and percentage in parentheses (%). Level of activity is assessed with a modified version of the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (I = mostly sedentary, II = Light PA, III = Moderate PA, IV = high PA). Abbreviations: CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index), ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group).
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The informants' current activity level ranged widely between I-IV, with most of the informants (N = 10) performing light activities for < 4 h per week.
Six themes related to the three research areas emerged from the analysis: 1) A general positive perception of physical activity is ex-pressed, 2) Comorbidities and external circumstances prevent physical activity, 3) Fatigue overshadows life, 4) Social support is key to short and long-term motivation, 5) Fixed conditions keep one focused, 6) Familiarity raises confidence and motivation. The six themes relating to each of the three research areas are shown in Table 3.
3.1. A general positive perception of physical activity is expressed
Regardless of their past and present level of physical activity (PA), the informants had a general perception of PA and exercise as being healthy and beneficial for them.
“Well, exercise is always good. It would definitely be good for me” (ID 2, 79-year-old female with biliary tract cancer)
The positive perception of PA was also reflected in their attitudes towards PA during oncological treatment. Some informants mainly emphasized the potential physical eﬀects of exercise as being important during treatment, while other informants highlighted the psychosocial benefits from PA, such as having meaningful activities to look forward to, and to avoid social isolation. The positive perceptions of PA were reinforced by what nyctinasty heard in the media and from the HCPs. This information from HCPs was valued by the informants, who also ex-perienced being praised and supported by the HCPs when they man-aged to stay physically active. r> Table 3 Research areas and identified themes.
Research areas Themes
Attitudes towards physical activity (PA) during oncological treatment • A general positive perception of physical activity is expressed Barriers towards PA • Comorbidities and external circumstances prevent physical activity
• Fatigue overshadows life Motivators, facilitators and preferences for PA • Social support is key to short and long-term motivation
• Fixed conditions keep one focused
• Familiarity raises confidence and motivation
“That is what they [HCPs] tell me. It is important to keep in shape … to be resilient, you might say” (ID 9, 68-year-old male with NSCLC)
Only one informant with pancreatic cancer questioned exercise as an exclusively beneficial strategy. This informant had involuntarily lost 30 kg in the time up to the diagnosis and described how exercising made him feel anxious about losing more weight.