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  • br Results br Table shows the mean values

    2020-08-12


    3. Results
    Table 2 shows the mean values for strength and balance for all participants. Right hand grip strength was significantly decreased in cancer survivors compared to healthy participants (p = .029). There were no significant differences in the strength of other muscles. The Mini-BESTest scores were significantly lower in cancer survivors than in healthy participants (p = .014). However, there were no significant differences in TUG single task, TUG cognitive dual tasks, and CoP length between the groups.
    In the breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis, both left and right hand grip strengths were significantly decreased in breast cancer sur-vivors compared to healthy women (right; p = .002, left; p = .012). There were no significant differences in knee extension strength. The Mini-BESTest scores were significantly lower in breast cancer survivors than in healthy women (p = .009). However, there were no significant differences in TUG single task, TUG cognitive dual tasks, and CoP length between the two groups. In the non-breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis, hand grip strength was not significantly different between non-breast cancer survivor and healthy participants. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the Mini-BESTest scores. Knee extension strength, TUG single task, TUG cognitive dual tasks, and CoP length were not significantly different between the two groups (Table 2).
    Table 3 presents the correlation coefficients for balance and strength of both groups. The Mini-BESTest score was positively correlated to grip strength (p < .05), and TUG (single and cognitive dual tasks) was negatively correlated to grip and knee extension strength (p < .05) in cancer survivors. However, cancer survivors showed no relation be-tween CoP length and muscle strength. Healthy participants showed no relations between any of the variables. In the breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis, the Mini-BESTest score was positively correlated to grip strength (p < .05), and TUG (single) was negatively correlated to grip strength (p < .05) in breast cancer survivors. TUG (cognitive) was negatively correlated to grip and right knee extension strength (p < .05) in breast cancer survivors. However, breast cancer survivors showed no relationship between CoP length and muscle strength. Healthy women showed only 84573-16-0 relationship between CoP length and left hand grip strength, but not relationships between other parameters. In the non-breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis, TUG (single and cognitive dual tasks) was negatively correlated to left grip and exten-sion strength of both knees (p < .05). However, non-breast cancer survivors showed no relations between Mini-BESTest, CoP length, and muscle strength.
    4. Discussion
    In Cretaceous Period study, we showed that cancer survivors have significantly lower Mini-BESTest scores and hand grip strength than healthy
    Table 2 Differences in muscle strength, Mini-BESTest, TUG, and length of CoP between cancer survivors and healthy participants.
    Variables Mean SD
    Mean SD
    p value
    Median Range
    Median Range
    Mean SD
    Mean SD
    Length of CoP (cm)
    condition
    Variables Mean SD
    Mean SD
    p value
    Median Range
    Median Range
    Mean SD
    Mean SD
    Length of CoP (cm)
    Variables Mean SD
    Mean SD
    p value
    Median Range
    Median Range
    Mean SD
    Mean SD
    Length of CoP (cm)
    Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or median [range].
    Statistical testing was performed using unpaired the t-test, except for the Mini-BESTest, which was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test.
    BW, body weight; CoP, center of pressure; ext, extension; TUG, Timed Up and Go test; Mini-BESTest, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test.
    participants. Additionally, in cancer survivors, muscle strength was significantly related to Mini-BESTest and TUG scores. In healthy par-ticipants, muscle strength was not related to Mini-BESTest and TUG scores. We conducted subgroup analysis with or without breast cancer survivors, because this study included many breast cancer survivors (57.7%). The breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis also showed similar results between cancer survivors and healthy participants. However, non-breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis showed no differences in hand grip strength and Mini-BESTest scores between non-breast cancer survivors and healthy participants. In other words, this finding showed that breast cancer results have much influenced to all 
    other types of cancer survivors' results.
    In balance function, breast cancer survivors had lower Mini-BESTest scores than healthy women participants. However, there were no sig-nificant differences in TUG scores and CoP length between the two groups. In the non-breast cancer survivor's subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences in Mini-BESTest scores, as well as TUG scores and CoP length, between the two groups. The Mini-BESTest evaluates balance and mobility (Godi et al., 2013), enabling detection of small differences in balance function between the two groups. A previous study showed that the Mini-BESTest has high reliability and validity and its can evaluate balance problems in community-dwelling